IAU Colloquium No. 174


Turku, Finland, 13th-18th June 1999

IAU Colloquium 174 on "Small Galaxy Groups" was held in Turku, Finland, 13th-18th June 1999. The meeting was supported by Commissions 28 and 7 and Division VIII of the IAU, and supported by the Academy of Finland, the University of Turku and the International Astronomical Union. 


The proceedings will be published in the PASP conference series. The deadline is 31st August 1999.

Page limits 
Invited talks (30 minutes or more) -  10 pages.
Long talks (20 or  25 minutes) - 6 pages.
Short talks (15 minutes) and Posters - 4 pages.

The preferred format for the text is a LaTeX file using the PASP style file. Figures should be in postscript format (either plain postscript ".ps" or encapsulated postscript ".eps").  We will also accept hardcopies for the figures and/or plain text format.

Submission of papers 

E-mail:  the easiest way to submit  your paper is to send your latex file and any postscript figures directly to sgg@astro.utu.fi
FTP:  you can download your latex/postscript files to vegemite.astro.utu.fi via anonymous ftp. Please create a directory for your paper using the first author name (as below). Don't forget to let us know by e-mail that you have ftp-ed your paper ...
    ftp vegemite.astro.utu.fi
    user: anonymous
    cd pub
    mkdir FirstAuthorName
    cd FirstAuthorName
    put my-sgg-paper.tex
    mput my-sgg-figs*.ps
Hardcopy:  you may also send us hardcopies of any figures you have to the address below
Chris Flynn
Tuorla Observatory 
Vaisalantie 20 
Piikkio FIN-21500 
PASP Style files and Example Papers

The style file for PASP 

A simple example paper using the PASP style file

A more complicated example paper

You should be able to latex the example files after downloading the style file and the examples to a directory.

Instructions for authors and a style guide are available at the PASP  website, and also from their  FTP  site. 


  • Triple systems of galaxies; theory and observations
  • Small groups of galaxies
  • The Local Group of Galaxies
  • Interactions and mergers in triplets
  • Free-fall triplets and cosmological structure formation
  • The Extended Local Group
  • Evolution from triplets to binaries
  • The role of triplets in cluster dynamics
  • Triplets at high redshift
  • Dark matter in small groups
Triple galaxies are the smallest groups of galaxies, and together with binaries and other small groups fill the gap between single galaxies and richer groups and clusters. The Local Group is an example of a system in this category, where the dynamics are more complex than in binary galaxies, and where the methods of the few body problem can be applied in the galactic scale. Such systems may include many smaller galaxies along with the dominant ones; thus the topic of this conference is generally systems of 3+N galaxies, where N is at most a few dozens. They cover a wide range of scales from 50 kpc to 700 kpc. 

This will be the first major conference devoted to triple Galaxies as an example of Small Groups of Galaxies. The importance of the number three is related to the questions of stability: Two major galaxies can form a stable system, a triple system cannot. The number three brings chaos into the dynamical system, and thus many new questions enter immediately: why do we observe triples at all, or at what stage of the evolution of the Universe do we observe them. How long do these transitory configurations survive, and how are they related to dark matter and other cosmological parameters? One would expect that an understanding of triple galaxies would bring us a long way on the road of understanding the evolution of galaxies in an expanding universe in general.

Dynamically, triples form a separate and well defined problem, different from binaries and from richer groups. Observationally the data base is rapidly increasing with new campaigns performed at SAO, Russia and in the Southern Sky; the Hubble Space Telescope is bringing new material on triplets at large redshifts while numerical simulations are rapidly attaining sufficient resolution that the problem of triplets can be addressed properly.


The programme is available as well as regularly updated list of talks and posters is available as well as a list of abstracts  and  registered participants .

Related links

Scientific Organising Committee  
Mauri Valtonen Finland
Joanna Anosova USA
Lia Athanassoula France
Gene Byrd USA
Arthur Chernin Russia
Francoise Combes France
Paul Hickson Canada
Walter Huchtmeier Germany
Igor Karachentsev Russia
Giuseppe Longo Italy
Juan C. Muzzio Argentina
Masafumi Noguchi Japan
Virginia Trimble  USA
Further Information
University of Turku - Congress Office
Lemminkaisenkatu 14-18 B
FIN-20520 Turku, Finland
Phone: +358 2 333 6342
Fax: +358 2 333 6410
E-mail : cescon@tkk.utu.fi
Local contact address:
Mauri Valtonen, Chris Flynn
Tuorla Observatory, FIN-21500 Piikkio, Finland
Phone : 358-2-2744245
Fax : 358-2-2433767
E-mail : sgg@astro.utu.fi
Web : http://www.astro.utu.fi/conferences/sgg/